The "southern cone" of South America has a vibrant yet checkered
history. Argentina in 1920 was a productive and wealthy
nation, yet by the 1980s was reduced to virtual third world
status. Chile has a long history of internal strife,
usually with representative politics until authoritarians seized
power in 1973. Chile was influenced by Spanish conquerors; Argentina's
Italian and German immigrants, made it the most "European" of
any South American country.
Cent.--Incas conquer Chile's fertile Central Valley;
Araucanian Indians driven south.
rounds South America through south-Chilean strait.
Spain's Diego de Almagro invades Chile, searching for
de Valdivia, 200 Spaniards, and 1000 Peruvian Indians
invade Chile. Valdivia founds Santiago (1541), Concepcion
(1550), others. Century of war with natives.
Treaty recognizes Araucanian control of southern Chile.
Cent.--Encomienda forced labor; Spanish trade through
independence movement after Napolean Bonaparte seizes
Spanish throne. War with Spain (1812-18); Chile wins independence.
and turbulence; Liberal and Conservative parties formed. Conservative
government 1830-61; Liberal government 1861-91.
War; Chile seizes northern Atacama desert.
-Chilean Civil War; Parliamentary Rule (1891-1924).
coups and reforms occur during Depression crisis.
--Pinochet seizes government, rules as military dictator;
1989 referendum restores elections.
Portugal's Juan Diaz de Solis discovers vast South
American estuary. Explored by Magellan (1520), Sebastian
Pedro de Mendoza establishes Buenos Aires; resettled
Cent.-- Colonial era; sparse population, factionalism
among internal states, tension with natives.
British attack Buenos Aires; Viceroy of Spain flee. Argentine
militias defeat British.
Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay become independent.
Argentine independence, 1816.
of Federalist strongman Juan Manuel de Rosas. Deposed
in military coup, followed by civil wars to 1880.
defeat Unitarians; Buenos Aires is federalized. Argentine
seeks immigrants, becomes increasingly European.
WWI, population doubles to 8 million; multi-party politics,
labor unrest. Military coup in 1930.
coup under GOU; ascendancy of Juan Peron.
ousted in military coup; military governments to 1983.
defeats Argentina in Falklands War.
abolish military government, restore democracy.